Latin name: Citrus limon (Linnaeus)

Family name Rutaceae
Oil from fruit rind
Obtained by cold expression

Origin Argentine.
We found no pesticides or herbicides

Density @ 20C this Batch: 0.8514
Aroma: This is a truly beautiful fresh Oil - Clean, Sweet, fruity characteristic of fresh squeezed lemon.
Color: light yellow
Photo Of Hyssop oil by Scott Ballard of Kobashi Essential Oils
RT Area% Library/ID Wiley
Ref#
CAS# Quality match
______ ______ ___________________________________ ______ _____________ _______
10.63
0.29 .alpha.-Thujene 25173 002867-05-2 90
10.95 1.44 "Pinene, alpha" 25368 000080-56-8 95
11.62 0.08 Camphene 25160 000079-92-5 93
12.70 12.12 Sabinene ( 003387-41-5) +.beta.-Pinene 25357 000127-91-3 96
12.96 0.90 Myrcene 25215 018172-67-3 87
14.19 0.06 .alpha.-Terpinene 24982 000099-86-5 97
15.10 72.01 LIMONENE + p-cymene 25358 000138-86-3 98
16.10 7.86 .gamma.-terpinene 25353 000099-85-4 95
17.25 0.29 terpinolene 25375 000586-62-9 97
17.58 0.06 Linalool 25089 000586-62-9 87
24.15 0.64 Nerol (z citral) 37692 000106-26-3 60
25.47 0.99 Geranial (a citral) 37948 000141-27-5 95
28.83 0.02 Citronellyl acetate 83004 000150-84-5 72
29.37 0.51 Neryl acetate 80895 000141-12-8 83
30.17 0.26 Geranyl acetate 80706 000105-87-3 83
30.69 0.01 Tetradecane 83535 000629-59-4 87
32.18 0.22 trans-Caryophyllene 89247 000087-44-5 99
32.60 0.39 "Bergamotene, trans.alpha.-" 89646 013474-59-4 78
33.59 0.02 Humulene.alpha. 89650 006753-98-6 95
33.66 0.02 .beta.-Santalol 106035 042495-69-2 87
35.17 0.02 Valencene 89662 004630-07-3 99
35.33 0.03 Bicyclogermacrene 89653 024703-35-3 96
35.54 0.53 .beta.-Bisabolene 89678 000495-61-4 97
38.59 0.03 Spathulenol 105983 077171-55-2 91
41.46 0.02 "Santalol, cis-.alpha.-" 105927 042495-69-2 64
52.78 0.04 "Citropten (5,7-dimethoxy-coumarin)" 90873 000487-06-9 94

 Important info;

Latin name; Citrus limom (d) (Citrus limomum)
Family name Rutaceae (k)
Type
Oil from Fruit rind
Obtained by Cold expression
Origin Argentina, Brazil, Italy, Spain, USA
Density 0.840 @20 degrees C (Kobashi BULK spain)
Density (lit)SG 0.849-0.858 @20 degrees C (f)
SG 0.851-0.852 @25 degrees C (d,III,105)
Refractive index (lit) 1.474-1.476 (f)
Optical rotation +57 to +65 (f)
+57 to +62 (d,III,105)
(Polarisation in 100mm tube)
Acid value
Ester value (lit)
Flash point 43-50(f) degrees C
43(l) degrees C


Health
mild toxic by ingestion (l)
May cause dermal irritation in some individuals (k)
None at 10%, human (f)
Sensitisation may cause dermal sensitisation in some individuals (k)
None at 10%, human (f)
Phototoxicity yes, do not use on skin exposed to direct sunlight (k)
May contain Bergaptene and/or oxypeucedanin (k)
IFRA; use @ <2% on skin to be exposed to sunlight {within 12hr,(g) }(k)
up to 10 furanocoumarins (g)
Bergaptene is photocarcinogenic (g)
(Distilled lemon oil is NOT phototoxic) (g)

Expiry term approximately 2 yrs
Susceptible to rapid deterioration if not stored in dark, cool place / refrigerated, under min. headspace of air (h) – else aldehydes may oxidise to acids (f)

Avoid sunlight after skin application


Composition (see XL sheet)
VOC; a comparison of head space analysis and ‘norma’ (a,88,p67)

Aldehydes C8 to C12 – important aroma bearing – need to report (a,81,150)

Check for Bergaptene and oxypeucedanin - phototoxic (k)
Level of oxidation shown by limonene oxides (h)
Furanocoumarins 2% (g)
Bergaptene vary greatly with area of production (a,81,p42)
‘Citral’ ; cis= Neral very important to composition (d,III,105)
trans= Geranial should be around 1.5 to 3% (both combined; depending on origin)

Check for sprays used on fruit (f)
Non volatile components make up about 2% of the oil (b)

Terpinen-4-ol (%) 0.02 (cold-pressed) 0.35 (distilled) (e,P&F 21(4))

Ageing(a,76,18)
Limonene oxid to cis- and trans- epoxides, carvone, carveol
‘Citral’ practically disappears after 36 months
Coumarins tend to retard ageing
Sediment forms on storage – high in coumarins – so less in oil to prevent oxidation
Terpinene.gamma. suggested rearranges to para-Cymene (a known source of off-odour in degraded oil –p26, (a,81,113))

Can be prevented from oxidising by addition of tocopherol (0.001-0.05%), and/or stearyl ascorbate (0.01%) (a,92,p1)
Chiral
Pinene.alpha. (1.7-2.6%) (1R)-(+) 33-38% (1S)-(-) 62-67% (e,P&F 21(1))
Pinene.beta. (11.3-17.0%) (1R)-(+) 5-6% (1S)-(-) 64-95%(e,P&F 21(1))
Limonene (72.0-73.7%) (4R)-(+) 99% (4S)-(-) 1%(e,P&F 21(1))
95 samples; (4R)-(+) 98.2% (4S)-(-) 1.8%(a,92,p161)
Linalool (-): (+) 54:46 (cold-pressed) 53:47 (distilled) (e,P&F 21(4))
Terpinen-4-ol (+) : (-) 20:80 (cold-pressed) 28:72 (distilled) (e,P&F 21(4))

Adulteration;
Carene, .delta.-3 – levels above trace show adulteration (e,P&F 21(4))
Terpinen-4-ol (%) 0.02 (cold-pressed) 0.35 (distilled) (e,P&F 21(4))

Density 0.840 @20 degrees C (Kobashi BULK 3935)
Density (lit) SG 0.849-0.858 @20 degrees C (f)
SG 0.851-0.852 @25 degrees C (d,III,105)
Refractive index (lit) 1.474-1.476 (f)
Optical rotation +57 to +65 (f)
+57 to +62 (d,III,105)
(Polarisation in 100mm tube)
Acid value
Ester value (lit)
Flash point 43-50(f) degrees C
43(l) degrees C

(a) Essential oils books (1976-94) yes
(b) Leonard Price folder yes
(c) Oil folder yes
(d) Gunther I-VI yes
(e) Journals (from XL list) yes
(f) Aromatherapy for health profs ,Shirley & Len Price.yes
(g) Essential Oil Safety, yes a Guide for Health Care Professionals R. Tisserand, T. Balacs
(h) The chemistry of essential oils yes
(i) Health and safety info (IFRA) yes
(k) The Encyclopaedia of Essential oils, Julia Lawless yes
(l) health and safety folder yes
Kobashi Essential Oils 2 Fore Street Ide devon EX2 9RQ UK www.kobashi.com lemon@kobashi.com